After the martyrdom his brother Hasan (AS), Hussain (AS) took the mantle of Imamat and spiritual guidance of the Ummah. It is during this period that during one of his journeys to Makka for pilgrimage, his famous Duas (Supplication) of Arafah became famous. This is a Dua which at the place of Arafat during the Hajj ritual that Imam recited and many pilgrims heard it and instantly memorized it as was the practice of the people of that time. Qur'an was also memorized in the same manner and many Sermons of Imam Ali (AS) were also memorized by people. This Dua of Arafa became famous because of its deep insight into the realms of spirituality of Islam and its total dependence upon Allah's Will and Power. This also gives insight into the reasons why Imam Hussain (AS) left Makka for Karbala. The following extract shows this feeling of the Imam towards reform of the Umma of his grandfather,
"O' God: you know that our struggle, moves, protests, and campaigns have not been, and are not, for the sake of rivalry and for obtaining power, neither are they for the sake of personal ambition nor for worldly ends, nor for the purpose of accumulating wealth and acquiring worldly advantages. " Then what is their purpose? Imam states the purpose in these words.
"To establish the landmarks of Your Deen, to make reforms manifest in Your lands, so that the oppressed among Your servants may have security, and Your laws, which have been suspended and cast into neglect, may be reinstated."
Further on in this same Dua the Imam calls upon his creator to show his total dependence upon Him.
"O' He, upon whom I called when I was sick and He healed me, when naked, He clothed me, when hungry He fed me, when thirsty He gave me drink, when abased He exalted me, when ignorant, He gave me knowledge, when alone He provided companion, when away from home He returned me home, when empty handed He enriched me, when in need of help He helped me, when rich He took not from me". This kind of complete dependence upon God which is the Hallmark of Islamic teachings, was taught by the Imam to the people of Madina and Makka, and the whole of Hejaz he visited.
Once a Bedouin asked Imam what is the best thing to do. Imam replied, "Belief in God". He asked again, what is the best means of deliverance from destruction, Imam said, "Trust in God". The man asked, what man’s ornament is, Imam replied," knowledge associated with intelligence". The man insisted, if this be not available, what then, Imam replied," Wealth accompanied with generosity". What if this is out of reach, Imam said, "Poverty allied with patience". What if this be not practicable? Imam smiled and said, let the lightening consume the man to ashes. He then gave whatever money he had with him to fulfill his needs.